The Prophet praised this kohl for its benefits and commanded it be used. He said it helps clear the eyesight and keeps them strong. It also relieves headache and is very beneficial for the skin. It is also very helpful in treating scabies and burns.

Traditionally kohl has been made from the mineral Galena (lead sulfide). Lead has many harmful effects on the human body including lead poisoning (also known as lead intoxication). The symptoms of poisoning include anemia, low IQ, growth retardation and convulsions. These symptoms are especially severe in infants and children.

Most recent studies have found that Middle Eastern kohls no longer contain antimony or only very low concentrations of it. However, some research suggests that kohl may still have properties that help protect the eye. One such property is that it reflects and absorbs ultraviolet light. This effect has been attributed to the mineral’s ability to form thin films on the surface of its crystals.

Another important point is that kohl can be an excellent natural moisturizer. Many kohls have high amounts of essential oils and minerals. The oil is very beneficial for the skin and can help with dry eyes, allergies, swollen glands and other conditions.

To test whether kohls sold in the UK and USA are safe, we purchased a number of products from various retail outlets and online vendors and analysed them using portable XRF and SEM-EDXS. We found that the majority of the samples did not conform to European law based on their presence of minerals such as Pb (often called galena) ranging from a few mg kg-1 to >400 g kg-1. antimony kohl